Cost of Reproduction I
Natural selection favors maximum number of surviving offspring
Trade-off between reproduction and survival: how many offspring produced? How much costs (energy, risk) for each offspring? How many times is offspring produced (length of life)? At which age is first offspring produced (maturity early vs. late)?
Reproductive cost: increase of offspring this season often leads to slower growth and/or less offspring in next season, or to higher mortality in reproductive season
Delay of reproduction may sustain faster, bigger growth with higher reproductive success at later age (high parental investment)
Investment per offspring: relevant is NOT number of produced offspring but number of surviving offspring! Trade-off between number of offspring and invested care